When I decided I wanted to do some hand-quilting on my quilts, I did as I usually do and jumped right in, preferring to learn as I go. I was also lucky enough to have a resource at my local quilt guild who answered what Google couldn’t. I’m compiling all I know here so hopefully it will help some of you too!
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Traditional versus Modern hand-quilting
For this article, I’m going to refer to traditional hand-quilting as the type of hand-quilting you most likely think of if I mention a vintage quilt. These were hand-quilted using 40 or 50 weight thread with very tiny stitches. The sought-after “gold standard” of these tiny stitches being 12 stitches per inch. (Take out your ruler and marvel at how you’d possibly get 12 stitches in a single inch. I’m still baffled.)
(In the picture above, traditional is on the left and modern on the right)
Modern hand-quilting, or “big-stitch” hand-quilting, has come into popularity with many modern quilters. This style includes using perle cotton or other similarly weighted thread and hand-quilting big stitches throughout the quilt.
Not all battings are created equal
There has been some recent talk out on Instagram about hand-quilting troubles. A couple of quilters were saying they had started a hand-quilting project and found that it was extremely tough to quilt through all the layers. They were using massive amounts of strength and were unable to “load” more than one stitch on their needle. The most likely culprit? Their batting.
Battings that contain a scrim are notoriously difficult to hand-quilt through. Scrim is a light layer of woven fabric that acts like a stabilizer to keep the batting together. The benefit of having a batting with scrim is that it allows a larger distance between quilting lines and holds up to the rough handling quilts go through when being fed through a domestic machine or long-arm. So for machine quilting? Battings with scrim are GREAT. However, since our arms don’t have the manpower of our sewing machines, this provides difficulty when hand-quilting.
Instead, look for a cotton batting without a scrim; or use wool, bamboo, or silk battings, which tend to be easier to hand-quilt. These battings have a loftier feel, and because they are much less dense, are easier to quilt through.
I will add a note here to say that when hand-quilting pillows, I DO use Pellon Natural Cotton, because I like the structure it provides to throw pillow covers. But it is much, much harder to quilt through than other battings on the market.
Battings to avoid: cotton battings with scrim, such as Warm & White, Warm & Natural, and Pellon Natural Cotton.
Try instead: Fairfield Toasty Cotton, Hobbs 80/20, wool, bamboo, or silk battings.
Well, great. But I already started. Is there any hope for me?
If you’ve already started hand-quilting a project that is proving very difficult, my suggestion is to see if you can do a hybrid machine-quilted and hand-quilted approach. For example, you could machine quilt the whole quilt in the ditch and add in some hand-quilting accents that complement the work you’ve already done. Or, if you quilt it enough with the machine that the quilt layers are secure, you could put in some “fake” hand-quilting by only quilting through the top layer and catching part of the batting. You wouldn’t see your hand-quilting stitches on the back, but it would still add some nice texture to the front.
Spray or thread baste?
I exclusively spray baste all of my quilts, and my hand-quilted ones are no exception. I’ve never had trouble or felt that the spray baste hinders my progress on my modern hand-quilting. But because the needles are bigger and the stitches are bigger, this might be the exception to the rule.
I was told by someone who does a lot of traditional hand-quilting that thread basting is preferable as the spray baste can make your top “stiffer” and therefore harder to quilt through. I spray basted the one and only quilt I ever traditionally hand-quilted. I was a far cry away from the gold standard, coming in at a lovely 5 stitches per inch. I’m not sure if thread basting would have made a difference in my number of stitches per inch, but it is definitely something I might try in the future.
If the idea of thread basting your quilt gives you nausea, consider outsourcing the task to your local longarmer.
What thread should I use?
For traditional hand-quilting, seek out 100% cotton thread that is specifically designed for hand-quilting. These threads come coated and feel stiffer than normal thread does. The coating helps the thread to glide through all the layers and keeps it from getting knotted or tangled. If you want to do some traditional hand-quilting without hand-quilting thread, coating your thread in thread conditioner will provide you with similar results.
For modern hand-quilting, there are a variety of options. Most popular are perle cotton threads in size 8 or 12. In thread, the higher the number the thinner the thread. For our example, size 12 thread is thinner than size 8 thread. Valdani, DMC, Wonderfil, and Aurifil all make thread in 12 weight. I’ve only tried Valdani and DMC since I can get both of those locally, and I prefer DMC. I’ve found that the Valdani thread shreds at the spot it sits in the eye of your needle, or from multiple repetitions through the quilt layers. I’ve never had this problem with DMC thread. I’ve also found the DMC to be smoother and to quilt up more evenly. If using Valdani thread, you’ll want to use shorter lengths of thread.
My preferred thread is Aurifil 12 weight. There’s a TON of thread on the spool which means it lasts and lasts. It doesn’t fray like some other kinds I’ve tried and is very durable. You can also use cotton crochet thread, in a size 10, for a similar weight/result to perle cotton and Aurifil.
Should I use a hoop?
I think hoops are a personal preference. I’ve tried using one and I didn’t like how restricted I felt. I prefer to lay my quilt on the floor and quilt it from there. I know some quilters who use a hoop and get very lovely results, and I know some quilters who don’t use a hoop and also get lovely results! There are many types of hoops and quilting frames out there. If possible, I recommend borrowing one from a friend to try it out and see if it is for you before you invest.
By golly, yes, you need a thimble!
I resisted this for a long time. So, so, so long! When I thought of thimbles, I thought of the old metal caps of my grandmother’s generation, and they looked and felt so unnatural to me. At first I wrapped band-aids around my fingers, which work in a pinch. Then I tried Thimble Pads, which are little sticky pieces of leather. These work, but the adhesive doesn’t stay in place so if you’re doing marathon hand-quilting sessions, you’ll find yourself repositioning them often (which is annoying).
I finally invested in a real thimble of my own after doing a lot of research. I absolutely adore my Clover Natural Fit Leather Thimble. The leather is soft and doesn’t feel foreign when trying to hand-quilt. Plus, because there is no designated quilting area on it, you can use it to add protection to your finger no matter how you quilt (for me, that’s the side of my finger). My only complaint about this thimble is that although it comes in three sizes, the small size is still too big on my finger. My suggestion to you would be that if you are in between sizes, size down. Leather stretches and molds to your skin, so after wearing it a few times, your thimble will fit perfectly. Even though mine is a bit big (I have very small baby hands), after I wear it for a while my finger will sweat a little and it helps keep the thimble in place. (Is this TMI?)
And finally, a word about needles
Needles are such a hard subject for me to talk about, because I really wing it in this area. I think that each project and each person is unique, and what needle will feel good to you might not work for your neighbor. I strongly recommend having a variety of needle types and sizes and testing out a few of them to find what you like. My favorite needles for modern hand-quilting are thicker, longer needles. I hate having a needle that bends during a project, and thicker needles are less likely to bend than thinner needles.
For traditional hand-quilting, I was recommended a “Between” needle in size 10. This recommendation came when I was almost done with my project, so although I’ve bought some, I haven’t tried them out yet. They’re quite short and thin, which is supposed to help you achieve those tiny, desired stitches. Once I try them I’ll be sure to give you a report.
UPDATE! I have a whole blog post dedicated to hand-quilting needles! I’ve tried a whole bunch and I have a favorite to share!
51 thoughts on “Hand Quilting Tips & Tricks”
First of all thank you very much for all of the good information. It is greatly appreciated. But I have a question several years ago I slipped and fell on the ice and damaged my quilting hand. I recently discovered that the quilt is exceptionally painful with my right wrist. Do you have any suggestions on how to deal with what I suspect is arthritis in the wrist and fingers?
I’m sorry, I don’t. An occupational therapist might be able to give you some ideas, or there might be a brace or something out there you can use that would help?
Great post! I agree on the comment about batting – I’ve big stitch quilted 2 quilts so far using a cotton batting w/o scrim and am going to try silk for my next quilt.
Thank you so much! One of the reasons I quit doing this because I couldn’t get those 12 stitches in an inch. I definitely will try this on a small block but your info was wonderful and very insightful.
I can’t get 12 stitcher per inch either! I love the look of chunkier hand-quilting, I do hope you give it a try!
Do you mark out your lines with a stencil or just wing it? I find it hard to see where I’m going with bigger quilts.
I either mark my lines with chalk or a hera marker or I follow a seam line. I’m not one for winging it!
So what type and size needle do you use for modern quilting?
I’m going to work on a blog post to answer this, I’m currently trying all differnt kinds to find my favorite!
When hand stitching do you go through all the layers or just the top?
All the layers! That’s usually the only quilting I do so I need to make sure I’m securing the whole quilt together 🙂
All layers The size of stitch is not as important as stitching thru the layer -stitches look wonderful on the back side! Look into Japanese quilting – stitches are large. Quilting is beautiful of any size wonderful completed work of art.
Hi, great tips! Where could I find the pattern for the rainbow stitch pattern quilt under the Batting section? Thank you 😊
Hi Nadine! I have a tutorial for baptist fan quilting here: https://patchworkandpoodles.com/baptist-fan-hand-quilting-a-tutorial/
Thank you so much for taking the time to provide this information. It is very helpful!
Awesome info. I think I’ll try it again. After reading this, I’m sure the batting was why I had a hard time of it. Thanks, Eliane!
You’re welcome! I hope you do try again! Batting makes a huge difference.
Thanks for the info very helpful as I am new to this hobby in lockdown and cannot get the the shops to ask questions
I’m using Tencel pearl from Trailhead yarns which is equivalent to a 10 with a large eyed quilting needle and getting 6-7 stitches to the inch. Not sure I’d call it modern quilting tho even with a heavier thread. The one thing I could not live without is thread gloss from Sew Fine… it opens up what type of thread can be used so much.
I know a lot of people like a thread gloss or conditioner. I’ve personally never used one but I’m glad it works for you!
Do you sew squares together before putting the whole quilt together? I have never quilted yet, and I am wanting to get into it. Thank you for this info.
yes, I sew the whole top together first and then quilt it with a backing and batting in the middle.
I was wondering… what would you say is an effective distance between quilting ‘lines’ ?
Very “amateur” quilter here and I am wondering if I’m doing it right…
Thanks & have a fun day 🙂
Hi there! If you’re wondering an effective distance between individual stitches, I think that’s all preference. As long as they’re not too large that you catch the stitches with your fingers or toes, you’re fine. For distance between lines of stitching, that depends on your batting. I’ve gone up to 4″ apart and the quilts have held up great.
just curious about batting. for years i used polyester batting (dont faint!). i still have those quilts after 25 yrs washed and quite durable. i think its easy to hand quilt thro . is there some reason cotton, wool and silk are most recommended now? (they’re also more $$)
Polyester is super durable and warm! It is also quite a bit thicker than cotton or wool, so it really depends on the look you’re going for. My favorite is Hobbs 80/20, which is 80% cotton and 20% polyester. I personally feel that it is personal preference! If you like poly and it has worked well for you, no reason to change!
Can you help me with hand quilting patterns onto a quilt?
I’ve checked out stencils but they seem to be mostly for machine quilting. I want something simple with a bit of a swirl in it.
Is using Quilting paper a good idea and puting the pattern on the paper then sewing through the paper?
Check out my YouTube channel and my hand-quilting tutorials on here. I’ve covered clamshells, baptist fans, and orange peel hand quilting designs. They’ll help give you an idea of how to mark out your quilt.
I may( still undecided) try to repair a quilt top (heirloom) from one of my great greats…has to be 150 years old, but is in relatively good condition. The hand stitching is about 10/inch. the repairs I need to make are mostly to fraying fabric, though it is not terribly damaged. My problem is there seems to be a stitch to knot the thread about every 1/2 inch. This makes it difficult to remove the seam. It is a lovely piece, about 75 x 90 inches. I am sure this grandmother would be astonished this has lasted this long. Any thoughts for me? I am tempted to “scavenge” a piece of one side to use for fabric, making this task a bit easier.
I would try to add a patch on top of the quilt itself to reinforce the fabric, might be easier than trying to remove all those knots!
Can you tell me which quilt pattern is the floral and white crosses.
Modern Crossing! https://patchworkandpoodles.com/product/modern-crossing-quilt-pdf-pattern/
I’m curious on how you store quilts while you’re quilting. Is ok to roll up sections or do you prefer to keep it flat? My daughter and I are both learning to quilt and each of us hand quilting our own means they’re taking up a lot of space!
I like to roll up the parts I’m not working on. I find that rolling instead of folding means that the basting spray doesn’t shift as much. How fun that you and your daughter are doing it together!
Hi Eliane, I really like and appreciate your tips and tricks. What quilt patterns are best to use to “chunky” or “Big stitch” hand quilt? I want to do this all over the quilt not just the outline where the stitching will pop! Any suggestions?
I’ve hand quilted a ton of quilts! If you look through them you’ll get some examples: https://patchworkandpoodles.com/category/finished-project/
When you count stitches per inch, do you count only the stitches that show on the ‘right’ or front side of the quilt? I’m a brand-new quilter, and I’ve read that beginners should try to get six stitches per inch. Thanks!
Different quilters count it different ways. I’ve found stitches per inch to be less important than striving for evenly sized stitches. Especially with big stitch hand quilting!
Hi, have you ever hand quilted with size 10 crochet cotton? Is it even possible? What would be the difference between perle cotton and crochet cotton? thank you in advance!
I have not used crochet thread – I think you could hand quilt with almost anything as long as you have the right size needle for the job. Of course the final look might be different, but it might be worth experimenting!
I love this blog! I’m a beginner quilter and this blog has been so helpful.
I’m so glad!
Hi Elaine! Such helpful tips you provide – thank you so much. I’m a very brand new quilter and want to have a go at hand quilting. I have a really thin cotton fabric that I’d like to use for the top of my quilt. Should I reinforce it somehow? Maybe stitch it to squares of calico first and then sew it all together? I just worry it’s quite thin and will need some strength to hold up to the quilting process?
Hi Caterina, you’ll hand-quilt when you’ve sandwiched your top, batting, and backing together, so any thin fabric will be reinforced by the batting and backing.
Have you hand quilted through Birdie Bird Batting? I can’t seem to find any comments about that.
I have not hand-quilted through Birdie Bird batting before, sorry!
Thank you Elaine!!! Great info on Batting. I enjoy modern hand quilting and just sandwiched a new quilt, When I started hand quilting and couldn’t figure out why I had major trouble pulling the thread through the layers. Scrim!!!! I’m going to take it apart and get new batting. I truly love the hand quilting part of the quilting process. Thanks again!